Hydroelectric plants are important facilities that generate a large amount of electricity with the use of water reservoirs. The water contained within the reservoirs is used to spin turbines within the plant, that of which then activates generators for energy generation. In order to efficiently produce power and to avoid any backups or hazardous water conditions, hydroelectric plants need to control the amount of water flowing through the entire system. To achieve this, plants will often use a hydro turbine control system that can vary the output and spill gates of the hydro turbine generator.
Hydroelectric power was first created due to the prevalence of the textile industry during the late 19th century. Before the debut of the hydroelectric turbine, most mills relied upon water wheels for centuries in order to conduct their operations. These wheels often ran into the problem of backwater which would inhibit the turning of the wheel. During the 1800s, however, Uriah A. Boyden developed the Boyden turbine during their employment at Appleton Company which served as a major improvement over the conventional water wheel. Further improvements to this design were made by French engineer Benoît Fourneyron in the 1840s, and they added a conical approach passage for incoming water. In 1948, Bowden improved their own design alongside engineer James B. Francis to invent the Francis turbine which served as the first mixed-flow turbine. With the Francis turbine, such assemblies could match the water flow and pressure of a particular site to ensure more efficient operations.
For a run-of-river hydroelectric plant, the amount of electricity that may be produced is entirely dependent on the volume of water flowing downriver. Some of this river water is diverted into a reservoir and directed towards a pipeline so that it may reach the power plant. Once the water enters the plant, it is passed through hydro turbine assemblies, causing them to begin spinning. The turbine is attached to a turbine generator through a shaft, and the spinning turbine and shaft causes the generator to produce electricity. Through this method of operations, diverted water can be used to produce electricity before being returned to the river after passing through the turbine. With the use of the hydro turbine control system, the river flow, reservoir level, and loads may all be monitored and governed to ensure optimal power generation. Furthermore, such systems also reduce the environmental impact of such procedures as they regulate the flow of water back into the river.
Hydroelectric plants are commonly used across the globe, and they currently account for around 16.6% of the world’s total electricity. China currently serves as the largest producer of hydroelectric power while some other countries have been following suit. As fossil fuels and other expendable resources are finite, hydropower presents a cleaner, renewable option for power generation that can benefit various areas that can accommodate such equipment. Over the following years, the amount of power generated through hydroelectric plants is expected to increase by a rate of 3.1% each year between 2015 and 2040.
Hydroelectric power is a very useful method for electricity production, and having the most reliable parts can ensure more efficient operations and power generation. When you are ready to begin procuring the parts that you need for your plant, look no further than Buy Aviation Parts. Buy Aviation Parts is a premier purchasing platform offering customers top quality aircraft parts, NSN components, and other such items catering to various applications. As the quality of our offered parts is of the utmost importance to us, we subject everything to rigorous quality assurance inspections and testing as well as ship items alongside their qualifying certifications or manufacturing trace documentation as applicable. If you would like to receive a competitive quote for items that you are interested in, our team of industry experts are readily on standby 24/7x365 and are happy to provide personalized solutions upon receiving a completed RFQ form. Get started today and see how Buy Aviation Parts is revolutionizing the part procurement process for the benefit of our customers.
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There is a great deal of work to be done aboard any ship. This includes painting, cleaning, handling cargo, and, perhaps most important of all, operating deck machinery. Not only is deck machinery very complex and expensive equipment, improper operation can lead to safety hazards as well as damaged machinery. In this blog, we will look at the most common deck machinery system mistakes and how to avoid them.
The first mistake is to increase the pitch of the bow thruster too rapidly. A bow thruster is a propulsion device built into or mounted onto the bow or stern of a ship or boat to make it more maneuverable. A common operator mistake is moving the bow thruster from minimum to maximum pitch in one movement. This can damage the motor significantly. The pitch should always be increased slowly and the maximum pitch should never exceed ninety percent.
The second mistake involves the winches. A winch is a mechanical device used to wind up or wind out a wire or cable. Controlling the speed of the winch is critical. It is always ideal to use the reduction gear rather than the brake. Overuse of the brakes will inevitably damage the lining of the drum. Slow and steady use of the winch is always preferable. The next mistake many operators make is overusing the deck crane system. To avoid this, be aware of and stay under the safe working load capacity of the crane system. The working capacity will most likely be displayed on the crane body.
A fourth mistake usually occurs when operating the ballast system. Prior to starting up the ballast pump, all valves and conditions around the pump should be inspected. Starting the pump from the cargo control room is a blind task, so it is critical to know the conditions of all the affected areas. It is also important to avoid mistakes while using the hydro blaster. This is essentially a power washer, used for cleaning aboard the ship. Prior to operating the hydro blaster, it is important to locate the safety switch. It should also never be altered with a tie or tape to keep the hydro blaster locked in the ‘on’ position.
Proper maintenance of the deck commonly involves welding equipment. This presents yet another necessary precaution. Like with any welding project, it is important to inspect the surrounding area for potential hazards including a fuel tank vent, tubing containing oil, or any critical part that could be damaged by heat. It is also important to check the insulation of welding cables. The final mistake you’ll want to avoid involves the onboard fire system. The fire system aboard a ship works by supplying water to the hydrants on the deck and in the engine room. However, it can only do this if the pipes are properly maintained. It is critical that the fire system’s mechanical components be maintained before going out to sea. If a fire starts, the last thing you want to find out is that the fire system is not working properly.
For onboard ship components and much more, look no further than Buy Aviation Parts. Owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all types of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, defense, electronics, industrial, and IT hardware markets. Our account managers are always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a competitive quote, email us at email@example.com or call us at 1-269-264-4495. Let us show you why we consider ourselves the future of purchasing.
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In aviation facilities, where there are countless moving parts and many pieces of large machinery, the presence of hazards is inevitable. During aircraft maintenance, in particular, workers are regularly near large structures, sharp components, turbine blades, and more. Whether it is a hangar, ramp, or workshop, extra precaution must be taken in these workplaces. In this blog, we will discuss the five most common causes of aircraft maintenance workplace accidents and how to prevent them.
The first cause of mishaps is the irregular shape of aircraft. As aircraft shapes are nonlinear, it is not always easy to provide complete safe access to the aircraft. The rounded shape of certain aircraft parts can create gaps between the working platform and the body of the aircraft. To avoid accidents caused by this, follow ladder safety guidelines and use harnesses whenever possible. The next issue is the sheer height of most aircraft. Moving about the hangar or maintenance area can be tough because the height of the aircraft makes it difficult to see other people on the ground. As such, accidents like colliding with a wing or being hit by an errant tire can arise. To avoid these issues, maintain constant communication with the aircraft operator and never enter the maintenance area without permission.
The third danger is that presented by rotating parts such as propellers and rotors. Accidents involving rotating parts can be very severe and range from minor cuts and scratches to disfigurement or severance of a body part. Rotating parts can also turn any surrounding tools or debris into projectiles. To avoid such incidents, remain within hazard lines and steer clear of propeller arcs. Additionally, you should never lean on engine intake areas, nor should you put your hands or feet near them. Tie back your long hair if you have it, and avoid wearing loose fitting clothing or anything that could become entangled in moving parts.
Further problems are presented by dangerous maintenance tools. Certain repair tasks require the use of tools such as grinders, drills, and welding torches. To avoid problems with these, don’t rush through your tasks, and take frequent short breaks to prevent fatigue that could compromise your focus. The fifth and final danger of aircraft maintenance is aircraft chemicals. Lubricants, paints, solvents, and fuels are just a few examples. Some of these can cause skin burns & rashes, while others are highly flammable. To handle these safely, refer to material safety data sheets, wear protective gear, and be sure that proper storage and disposal methods are adhered to.
At Buy Aviation Parts, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all types of aircraft maintenance parts in addition to other parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or call us at 1-269-264-4495.
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A hydraulic system uses pressurized fluid to drive machinery. A standard system consists of the hydraulic fluid and three mechanical components: the pressure generator, plumbing, and motor. The pressure generator is a hydraulic pump driven by an electric motor, engine, or manual pump. The plumbing refers to the valves, filters, and pipes, and the motor is either a hydraulic motor, hydraulic cylinder, or hydraulic actuator.
Hydraulic systems of some configuration are found on nearly all types of aircraft. For example, in small aircraft, hydraulic components are used to control wheel brakes. In larger aircraft, hydraulic systems can provide the power for systems such as nose wheel steering, landing gear extensions/retraction, flight controls, and more. However, as most hydraulic systems are combustible, a compromised hydraulic system combined with an ignition source can start a fire. Hydraulic fluid fires can be catastrophic and ultimately lead to the loss of an aircraft, and in the event of a post-crash fire, hydraulic fire can add yet another fuel source.
Aircraft have two main defenses against hydraulic fires. The first is to use hydraulic fluids with special fire-resistant properties that have been developed for aviation use. These fluids contain phosphate esters which, unlike hydraulic fluids based in mineral oil, are very difficult to ignite at normal operating temperatures. However, should its temperature exceed 180 degrees Celsius, it can combust. For most aviation hydraulic fluids, the auto-ignition temperature is approximately 475 degrees Celsius. The second defense is cockpit brake temperature indicators, which give pilots warning of a potential wheel well fire.
There are many factors that can contribute to a hydraulic fluid fire. First, a leak from a pressurized system can cause misting of the hydraulic fluid, making the fluid more susceptible to ignition. Second, aircraft brakes can reach temperatures higher than 500 degrees Celsius, high above hydraulic fluid’s auto-ignition temperature. Finally, in the event of a post-crash fire, temperatures will also far exceed the auto-ignition temperature of aviation hydraulic fluid. However, there are steps you can take to prevent hydraulic fluid fire. For one, stringent maintenance practices and inspections will help minimize these risks. Furthermore, as manufacturers continue to develop more fire resistant fluids, the amount of such fires will reduce.
For all hydraulic system equipment and much more, look no further than Buy Aviation Parts, a trusted supplier of parts for a wide range of industries. We are an online distributor of aircraft parts as well as parts pertaining to the aerospace, civil aviation, defense, electronics, and IT hardware markets. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, call us at 1-269-264-4495 or email us at email@example.com.
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Whether an aircraft is a small business jet or a large civilian airliner, most modern aircraft have now implemented a variety of electronic systems in order to improve flight instruments, accommodate passenger needs, and power lights and other fixtures. As such, aerospace manufacturing companies implement generators or alternators for the production of power, ensuring that all aircraft electrical components function properly. While typical wall outlets provide an electronic frequency that ranges from 50-60 Hz for plugging in appliances, the aerospace standard remains much higher at 400 Hz for all aircraft. While this may seem like too high of a frequency for the powering of electronics, there are some major reasons why such an amount has become the widespread standard.
Across all factors of aerodynamics and heavier-than-air-flight, one of the top concerns of aerospace manufacturing companies when designing and engineering an aircraft is its weight. Generally speaking, the less an aircraft weighs in total, the less fuel will be needed for travelling longer distances. As such, manufacturers always look for ways to reduce weight to save operational costs. With a 400 Hz frequency generator or alternator implemented within the aircraft, less devices are needed for optimally powering all aircraft electrical components. As such, it is preferable to have a minimal amount of high power devices to ensure sufficient electricity is obtained.
Furthermore, having 400 Hz frequency for direct current and alternating current power is also important for the goal of standardization. As the aviation industry is a globally supported and practiced sector with constant interaction between entities and countries, it is critical that all aerospace manufacturing companies support some form of standardization of materials and systems for the benefit of all. With part interchangeability and compatibility, procuring replacement parts for repair can be much easier and can drastically reduce the amount of time for carrying out MRO servicing. With a variety of aircraft electronics specifically designed to be compatible with 400 Hz frequency, interchangeability is easy.
Through saving weight and having standardized, interchangeable electronic parts, aircraft of all types can highly benefit from the use of 400 Hz frequency power as provided by generators and alternators. If you are in the market for aircraft electronic components, generator and alternator parts, or any other aviation components, look no further than Buy Aviation Parts. As a leading online distributor, we provide customers access to an unrivaled inventory consisting of over 2 billion new, used, and obsolete items that cater to a diverse set of industries and applications. If you are facing an aircraft on ground (AOG) situation or a time constraint, we offer same-day and expedited shipping for a number of available items. Explore our robust part catalogues at your leisure, and our team of industry experts are readily available 24/7x365 to assist you through the purchasing process as needed.
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When you have sheet metal structures that are in need of repair, there are some important steps that you should make during inspection and maintenance. When fixing a piece that is broken or damaged, check with the producer’s SRM for the aircraft. When you do this, you mind finding a helpful illustration of the repairs needed, what steps to take, what parts you might need, etc. Any further information that is necessary to make a repair is also detailed. If the necessary information is not found in the SRM, it’s best to find counsel on similar pieces that need fixing, preferably from the same manufacturer as your metal sheet.
In order to maintain your FAA sheet in an FAA approved status and with approval to fly, you have to make consistent screenings and frequent inspections. This is so that you can note any pieces or parts that are vulnerable to corrosion (something that can happen when the pieces have operated in salt water). Inspection of floats and hulls involves examination for damage due to corrosion, collision with other objects, hard landings, and other conditions that may lead to failure. The places between sheets of metal that are exposed to water need to be proofed against water damaged with suitable fabric and sealing compound. You can test a float that has gone through hull maintenance by filling it up with water and letting it stay for at least a whole day.
Harm to metal aircraft's skin that reaches repairable limits involves the removal of the whole panel. The panel must also be replaced if there are too many previous repairs in a given section or area. Some of the flight controls of smaller general aviation aircraft have beads in their skin panels. When this happens, it is crucial to act fast and cover these seams. This should be covered in the manufacturer manual but can be easy to forget or dismiss. Overall it is very easy to maintain and give your sheet metal structures a long life so long as you provide it with the maintenance and inspection it needs.
For more information on metal sheet parts and the process to repair them, look to the folks at Buy Aviation Parts. Owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries including floats, sheet metal, rotary assembly,fuselage rivet, sealing compound, skin panels, press brake. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@BuyAviationParts.com.
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One of the most common types of engines used is the piston engine. They are among the most popular engines that are sought for cars and other vessels in the United States as well as in other countries. However there are variations in the types of engines that are used in the United States, as some vessels require a rotary engine. To those who are novices in this type of industry, a piston engine and a rotary engine may appear the same, but they are not. There are some distinct differences between them that you should be familiar with. In this article, we will go over some of the differences of the two.
A piston engine, which can also be referred to as a reciprocating engine is a traditional automotive engine which creates a rotating motion by way of utilizing reciprocating pistons. The way this works is that pistons are linked with a cylinder where both air and gas is incinerated. When the mesh of both air and gas is heated, it results in a high pressure that moves the piston, and in turn, results in the crankshaft revolving and pushing the vessel. For the most part, piston engines are often used in cars and even in aircraft because almost all large automakers utilize piston engines.
As for a rotary engine, which can also be known as a wankel engine, these are less frequently sold and used for automotive engines because they are defined by the use of an odd number of cylinders in a radial layout. Rotary engines are, for the most part, smaller, lighter and more space efficient than with piston engines. They are called "rotary engines" because all their parts rotate. In comparison, piston engines have reciprocating pistons that move up and down in the cylinders. That being said, There are some major disadvantages to having a rotary engine that should not be dismissed. For example, rotary engines are hit harder from inefficient fuel economy and generally can use up more fuel while producing less horsepower than piston engines. Rotary engines can also generate more emissions than piston engines because they are more prone to leakage.
On the other hand, rotary engines have fewer moving parts. It's not unusual for a rotary engine to have solely a few number of moving components, whereas a piston engine may have dozens of moving parts. With the existence of additional revolving segments, there is a greater potential for failure on the internal side of the piston engines. Modern automobiles will normally have either a piston engine or a rotary engine. Piston engines have up-and-down moving pistons that convert pressure into rotational motion, whereas rotary engines feature a radial layout with an odd number of cylinders.
Buy Aviation Parts is an online distributor of aircraft parts. If you’re in need of such tools like piston engines or rotary engines, trust in the team at Buy Aviation Parts. At Buy Aviation Parts, we are a trusted distributor for aircraft components and IT hardware parts. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or simply give us a call at +1 (714) 705-4780.
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Since the end of World War I, almost all aircraft have adopted braking systems that allow them to safely come to a stop on runways and surfaces. Typically, most modern aircraft utilize a disc brake assembly in which each of the main wheels is fitted with a brake unit. Depending on the size of the aircraft, various designed brake systems may be used, and common types include single, dual, and multiple disc brakes. In this blog, we will discuss what disc brakes are, as well as how they assist in stopping aircraft on the ground.
In general, the aircraft disc brake assembly is similar to that on a ten-speed bicycle, consisting of brake pads, a caliper, rotor, and other various components for fastening and more. The caliper of the disc brake allows for the clamping of the brake pad onto the wheel, and this is achieved through hydraulic actuation provided by fluid pressure. When the brakes are used by the pilot, fluid pressure enters into the caliper cylinder, forcing the pistons outwards to move the brake pad onto the wheel. With a piston seal, hydraulic fluids are kept contained within the system, and the piston seal also assists in retracting the piston once the brakes are released. To ensure that contaminates and sediment do not enter the piston and brake, a small clearance of 0.005” is permitted when the brakes release, and a piston boot impedes the penetration of dirt and water. Additionally, a bleeder screw is also implemented to rid the hydraulic system of air, and it is located on the caliper housing.
For the brake pad to function properly, it is fitted with steel shoes and lining that have been fastened or bonded to the pad. In general, the materials used to make the linings of brake pads are asbestos or semi-metallic materials, though modern aircraft often use the latter due to its ability to withstand higher operating temperatures without risking integrity of friction. To ensure that brake pads do not vibrate and cause wear during operation, clips are snapped onto brake pads to affix them to the caliper, preventing rattling. The rotor, or brake disc, is also part of the brake pad system to slow the aircraft, and the rotor is often manufactured from cast iron. Depending on the size and weight of the aircraft, various configurations of the disc brake assembly may be used, and these include single, dual, and multiple disc brakes, each providing their various benefits for stopping power.
While aircraft may also utilize flaps and other flight surfaces to reduce speed before landing, the disc brake assembly remains crucial for safe stopping power on the ground. When you are in need of reliable aircraft disc brake parts for your operations, look no further than Buy Aviation Parts. Buy Aviation Parts is a leading online distributor of aircraft parts, and we can provide you with rapid lead-times and competitive pricing on over 2 billion parts and components that we carry. Explore our robust catalogues at your leisure, and our team of industry experts are readily available for customers 24/7x365 to provide assistance during the purchasing process.
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In any maintenance sector, whether it’s in the automotive industry or the aircraft industry, knowing how and what equipment to use for lubricating the tools you work with is an essential skill. It’s critical especially in the aviation sector to understand how to properly distribute and move your lubricants to where they need to be. By strictly abiding by safety protocols, you reduce risk of potential contamination and you keep your lubricants in places that are easy to find and simple to use. If you are interested in learning more about the types of lubricants that you can use as well as how to properly use them, you may find the article below helpful.
There are methods to avoid cross contamination when dealing with lubricants, particularly when you are distributing them or transferring them. One method whc you can use is color coding the labels on the containers or tagging them so as to guarantee that the lubricants are not mixed. As soon as they are labeled, you can color code the equipment with the tags. When choosing a container, do not use a galvanized container to transfer the lubricants. By utilising this container, you can potentially cause the mineral zinc to leak onto the oil or onto the lubricant. In these scenarios it is best to make use of sanitized and sealed plastic containers and designate one container per lubricant type so as to prevent any cross contamination occurs.
Along with color coding, it's also vital to remember to screen any and all oils and lubricants that are placed into your machinery. Whether new or old, any lube/oil should be filtered as a clean solution is always necessary to ensure a safe procedure. Additionally a lubricant filter cart should and may be used whenever applicable. Some other things to consider when organizing your lubricants and oils is using a rack mount for your dispensing station as an effective tool to use for proper handling. Selecting a dispensing container that was made for lubricant analysis is vital because the tools that you utilize to distribute and move your liquids are maintained at extreme degrees of cleanliness and quality. Not doing this puts you at risk of cross contamination of your equipment and machinery with your fluids.
If you are interested in learning more about such procedures or are otherwise interested in acquiring certain liube parts or other necessities for the aeronautical industry, get in touch today with our team! We have over six billion items in stock which you can request via our online parts directory.
For more information on aircraft lubricant and other corresponding parts, contact our team at Buy Aviation Parts. At Buy Aviation Parts, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@BuyAviationParts.com or call us at 1-714-705-4780.
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The airspeed indicator (ASI) is an aircraft flight instrument in which the speed of the aircraft is measured and conveyed to the pilot in either km/h, kn, MPH, or m/s. Having accurate airspeed measurements is important for the safety of flight, as well as aids in conducting accurate navigation of the aircraft. In this blog, we will discuss what the airspeed indicator flight instrument is, as well as how it functions and provides accurate measurements.
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The Horizontal Situation Indicator or HSI, one of the most important tools for any pilot, provides a basic horizontal view of an aircraft’s navigation picture. For example, in the F-15E Eagle fighter jet, the HSI can provide navigation data to selected ground navigation facilities like Instrument Landing Systems or onboard navigation systems such as the Inertial Navigation System. The HSI is a critical tool during instrument flying, wherein the pilot’s visibility is so poor that he or she must rely solely on their instruments. Because of this, the HSI has become more and more popular in general aviation over time.
The HSI is typically mounted below the artificial horizon, where it takes the place of a conventional heading indicator. On the HSI, the aircraft is represented by a schematic figure in the center of the instrument. The VOR-ILS (Very High Frequency Omi-Directional Range Instrument Landing System) system is shown in relation to this figure. In most configurations, the heading indicator is linked to a remote compass and the HSI is frequently interconnected with an autopilot. While an HSI is a highly-intricate tool, it is relatively easy to understand when you break it down to its base parts. This blog will explain what an HSI is, what it does, and the main components of one.
Simply put, an HSI is a combination of two very common cockpit instruments: the directional gyro with a heading bug and the VOR-ILS indicator. The combination of the directional gyro with the NAV indicator greatly reduces the pilot’s workload by providing them with heading, course reference, course deviation, and glide slope information in a convenient, all-in-one visual aid. Additionally, the HSI also makes it easier to understand the aircraft’s position relative to the desired course or holding pattern. The split needle configuration resulting from the course and reciprocal pointers and the VOR/LOC deviation indicators clearly indicated both selected course and course deviation.
The HSI also provides standard sensing and course deviation indication during back-course ILS approaches. It can do this as long as the front course heading is set under the head of the course pointer and the aircraft is flying in the direction of the course deviation indicator. HSIs feature 45 degree tic marks to provide visual representation of procedure turns and reciprocals, allowing a pilot to fly without having to memorize outbound & inbound headings or add & subtract 45 degrees for intercepts or offsets. The HSI also provides a heading bug for autopilot coupling or, in aircraft not equipped with autopilot, as a heading reminder.
While all parts of an HSI have important roles, the most critical are the compass card, warning flags, course deviation bar, and the to/from indicator. The compass card, driven by the internal gyro, shows the magnetic heading of the aircraft and can automatically correct them in certain setups. The warning flags serve a number of purposes, ranging from indicating that the HSI course deviation indicator is not functioning properly, to alerting the pilot that the speed of the directional gyro is too low. The course deviation bar, as its name suggests, indicates when the aircraft is off a selected course, and how far off it is. The to/from indicator is used to show whether the selected course will lead the aircraft to or from the VOR station.
At Buy Aviation Parts, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you source horizontal situation indicators, attitude indicators, and general aircraft parts. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, call us at +1-269-264-4495 or email us at email@example.com. Our team of dedicated account managers is standing by and will respond to you in 15 minutes or less.
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The valves in an engine, known simply as engine valves, are designed to balance and control the flow of gasses that come into and out of the cylinders located in the engine. They are intended to regulate the gas levels during the combustion process of the engine. In basic terms, they serve to open and close a portal for air or gas coming in and out of the engine. Depending on the type of vessel the engine is working for, the engine may have one or more valves. Automobile engines, for instance, tend to have two engine valves that are placed for each cylinder. Aircraft engines also tend to have multivalve.
Poppet Valves and the Functions of Different Valve Heads
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An aircraft ladder is very versatile in that it can be used for various purposes and for many different industries. Though aircraft ladders are particularly useful in the industrial and aviation sector, there are people outside of these sectors that frequently use the ladders including but not limited to auto mechanics, highwire technicians, electricians, and even everyday citizens for private home use. Aviation ladders provide a stable platform for technicians to work from and a safe passageway for passengers and pilots to board. This is why they are so useful in aviation as well as in other areas. For more information on aviation ladders, read the article below.
Height Adjustable Ladders
Aircraft Maintenance Ladders
Aircraft Boarding Steps
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In industries as rigid and regulated as aerospace and aviation, every nut and bolt is important. If you break down each assembly of an aircraft to its most basic parts, one thing you will find in all aircraft is the presence of fasteners. Fasteners are used to connect all types of parts through primary structural areas, secondary structural areas, pressurized and non-pressurized areas, and to bear or transfer a load from one part to another. To give you an idea of how critical fasteners are, look no further than the Boeing 747. There are more than 6,000,000 individual parts on that aircraft, half of which are fasteners.
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The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI), one of the simplest yet most important instruments at a pilot's disposal, is a tool used to indicate the rate of climb or descent of an aircraft. The VSI uses the common pitot-static system to determine vertical speed and displays the result via a needle and circular scale instrument. In this blog, we will take a look at VSIs, what components they are made of, and how they work.
The two main components of the VSI are the diaphragm and the calibrated leak. The diaphragm is the flexible metal container that connects to the VSI's source of static air. In addition to this, the diaphragm is connected to a set of rods and gears that move the VSI's needle up and down. The calibrated leak is a miniscule opening that connects the VSI casing to the static source. The calibrated leak's opening is designed small enough to restrict airflow to prevent air from moving in and out of the diaphragm faster than it can handle.
As the aircraft climbs, static pressure in the air begins to decrease. As such, the pressure in the diaphragm decreases. Despite this, the pressure in the VSI casing actually increases because the calibrated leak slowly releases air. Varying levels of pressure within the casing and diaphragm causes a pressure differential, squeezing the diaphragm and moving the gears connected to the VSI needle. The exact opposite of this phenomenon occurs when the aircraft descends.
The VSI relies on air moving in and out of the casting to make readings, so it is not always an immediate indication of vertical speed. It typically takes a second or two for the readings to stabilize and provide operators with the accurate information. When you first begin ascending or descending, the needle will move, but can't yet accurately determine the vertical speed. This is called trend information. Once the calibrated leak catches up and stabilizes, the VSI will begin provide accurate readings known as rate information.
The VSI is one of few instruments on an aircraft that operates without any power, yet it remains one of the most crucial. At Buy Aviation Parts, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all types of Vertical Speed Indicators for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We're always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or call us at +1-269-264-4495.
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Set classifications for common types of aircraft damage ensures uniform diagnoses and accurate repair for all aircraft overhauls. There are eleven detailed aircraft damage classifications starting with the basic, dent. A dent is classified as a depressed or hollow deformation without removal of material or change in cross sectional area. Dents like these are caused by impact from a smoothly contoured object.
One characteristic all dents should have is a “pushed in surface” and a relatively smooth bottom where metal is not displaced, folded, or creased. Next we have nicks. Nicks are broken edges without cracks, but with portions of material removed. Negligible damage limits will vary with structure, material, and loading. Scratches is a classification that denotes marks penetrating the surface that reduce the structural cross section of the material but do not penetrate the complete thickness.
Generally, scratches in Alclad aluminum alloy sheet that do not penetrate the protective Alclad layer are classified as negligible. Hole damage refers to punctures, penetrations or cutouts that breach the complete thickness of the material and is fully surrounded by undamaged material. The size, shape, and distance from edges and supporting structures must be considered when evaluating hole damage.
Next, we have Abrasion damage. Abrasion refers to scuffing, rubbing, scraping, or other surface erosion. This type of damage is usually rough and has an irregular shape. A Gouge classification is damage where the result is a cross-sectional change caused by a sharp object and gives a continuous, sharp or smooth groove in the material.
Corrosion damage classification is used for deterioration of metal due to electrochemical reactions with its environment. Depending on the type of corrosion, this deterioration may take the form of cracking, exfoliation, or erosion of the corroding material. Corrosion is typically classified as light, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of the corrosion and the loading requirements of the corroded part. Note damage is when an initial accurate determination of the type of damage encountered can usually be made by the use of a 10x magnifying glass or an optical micrometer.
True crack length determination will generally require some form of Non Destructive Testing such as Eddy Current or Fluorescent penetrants. The damage classification, Delamination is used when separation of the layers of material in a laminate, either local or covering a wide area, occurs during manufacturing or in service. Fiber-reinforced and composites may delaminate when impacted and not exhibit visible damage. The last type of common aircraft damage is Disbonds. Disbonds is an area within a bonded interface between two adherents in which an adhesion failure or separation has occurred.
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Aircraft maintenance is becoming more complex with the passing of time and scheduled inspections are more important than ever. A scheduled aircraft inspection refers to any preventative repair or maintenance that a cabin crew or technicians undertakes at planned intervals. The main types of scheduled maintenance are annual inspections, 50- and 100-hour inspections, preflight checks, and progressive inspections. These are all designed to ensure the functionality and airworthiness of the aircraft.
Taking place once a year, annual inspection is necessary for any aircraft whether its uses are recreational, instructional, or commercial. Annual inspections are more detailed than preflight or 100-hour inspections and encompasses checks of flight controls, avionics, engine, logbooks, and flight control surfaces. Maintenance crews will note any defects during inspection and repair them before the aircraft is able to fly again.
50- and 100- hour inspections are important for fixing minor wear and tear and addressing smaller issues. Unlike 100-hour checks, 50-hour checks are not actually FAA mandated, but they are a good idea since oil must be changed every 50 hours anyway. 50-hour checks can include engine inspection as well as gapping, cleaning, and examination of the spark plugs. 100-hour checks are more in depth and include inspection of all major components of an aircraft as well as removal of control surfaces, brakes, tires, landing gear, struts, and access doors for examination. Additionally, the crew will inspect the cockpit and cabin as well as the fuel switches, battery, flight controls, yoke, and avionics.
Pre-flight checks and progressive inspections are typically less intensive than other maintenance. Pre-flight checks are performed by the cabin crew to ensure that nothing has been compromised. The crew often possesses a checklist of components that need to be inspected before every flight. Progressive inspections, also known as phase inspections, are frequent but lighter, less thorough inspections that occur when tight flight schedules make it unrealistic for intensive repairs. They typically occur after every 25-50 hours of flight time.
Taking care of your aircraft is pivotal in ensuring its safety and efficient function. At Buy Aviation Parts, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the maintenance parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or call us at +1-269-264-4495.
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For much of the U.S., de-icing is a necessity of flying during most of the year. While it might be annoying for passengers to wait on the plane as the de-icing fluids wash over the plane, it’s a serious task for flight crews. Ice causes a great deal of concern from an operational safety perspective and every precaution must be taken before a plane can depart. In early 2018, Southwest Airlines was forced to cancel over 200 flights due to a shortage of de-icing fluid.
The ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) operations manual notes that all aeroplanes are designed to “fly clean.” This means the plane should be free from foreign substances on the fuselage and flight control surfaces. The ICAO manual further states that snow, slush, ice and frost are all safety hazards that, if not dealt with, can become detrimental to the performance of an aircraft. The most common means of de-icing is the spraying of a fluid called propylene glycol. The orange fluid, heated to 150 Fahrenheit and pressurized, is used to blast off any contaminants on the plane.
In extreme conditions, de-icing fluid is used in tandem with anti-icing fluid. Though they sound like the same thing, they serve different purposes. While de-icing fluids are used to remove ice, anti-icing fluids are used to prevent the formation of ice to begin with. Anti-icing fluid is much more viscous, allowing it to adhere to the aircraft surface for a much longer time. In general, pilots have under 22 minutes to take off from the time the de-icing and anti-icing fluids are applied. This is called the “holdover time.”
Despite all the safety regulations and practices, the decision of whether to fly or not ultimately comes down to the captain of the aircraft. They will communicate directly with the ground staff, confirm what de-icing methods were used, and learn what the holdover time will be. Although it often delays takeoff, de-icing is a crucial practice in ensuring the safety of a flight.
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Adhering to proper maintenance practices is of utmost importance in the aerospace industry. No aircraft is so tolerant of neglect that it is exempt from deterioration in the absence of inspection and maintenance programs. Corrosion, wear and tear, natural fatigue, and chance failures all contribute to the overall functioning and safety of aircraft.
Proper maintenance isn’t only about replacing a damaged part; it is about the repeated proactive actions required for restoring or maintaining a plane. Methods used to keep an aircraft in serviceable condition includes inspection, overhaul, servicing, and determination of condition. The different stages of aircraft maintenance involve light, heavy, and shop maintenance with each one focusing on separate areas of the vehicle.
Light maintenance refers to a large portion of pre-flight inspections and routine checks. This also encompasses any servicing that is carried out before the flight to ensure the aircraft is fit for the intended flight. The light maintenance process involves checking fluid levels, troubleshooting, repairing any defective components, as well as replacing malfunctioning components. This type of maintenance also focuses on minor repairs and modifications that do not require extensive disassembly and can be accomplished rather quickly; heavy maintenance involves more in-depth work.
Heavy maintenance, also known as base maintenance, consists of repairs or servicing that is generally more invasive and require longer time frames. Although these tasks involve heavy repairs, they occur more infrequently. Airliners and private pilots tend to contract outside assistance for these situations as they require specialized tools/equipment. Heavy maintenance repairs often involve the removal of defective components, technology upgrades in the cockpit, cabin reconfiguration, as well as painting the aircraft. If a plane needs in-depth servicing to the engine, wings, or tail, it will be destined for shop maintenance.
When an aircraft needs major maintenance or an overhaul, shop maintenance is required. This includes engine dismantle and repair, wing servicing, cabin maintenance, fuselage upgrades, window replacement, or any other major service. Often times this maintenance can be performed under the same conditions as heavy maintenance; however, this typically requires a hangar or a place to station the aircraft.
Proper upkeep on your aircraft contributes to extending the life of the plane, reinforcing passenger safety, maintaining excellent performance, and avoiding costly repairs. Be sure to adhere to the recommended maintenance schedules for your vessel and its components to ensure the longevity of the aircraft.
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Much thought and focus are given to developing and improving the tools with which aircraft maintenance is performed, but what about the procedures that govern how those tools are used? Process-driven actions on the hangar floor or general aviation facilities don’t have to be cumbersome or complex.
One of the most common process-driven actions is the checklist. Checklists are used for an enormous variety of maintenance procedures, the most common being the annual inspections and 100-hour inspections required by the FAA. With the advent of computers, checklists can track the progress of personnel based on the work they are assigned and maintain a status record to remind teams of what part they are on.
Checklists have applications in multiple roles and can serve many purposes. In production, it can be the basis for estimating how long work will take. By adding the individual man-hours, a task will take to accomplish a singular goal, such as disassembling an aircraft’s engine, you can determine if you have enough hours in the day to do the work. This is particularly useful when juggling multiple customers and deliveries.
Checklists are also useful as task reminders of progress and what’s going on with the aircraft. A work turnover, a diary of the day’s activities and progress, is good for keeping track of information and incomplete work. Whether rig pins have been installed, the status of a circuit breaker, if new paint is wet or not, and other maintenance efforts are important to know the status of. It’s also important for personnel to record the last step accomplished in an interrupted procedure so that work doesn’t resume in the wrong place. Even if you are working alone, it is better to record your progress than to rely on memory.
Material issues can be recorded on a checklist to show component changes. Component removals and installations are critical items to include with any work order, and a record of component histories is also useful for future work when the aircraft returns for repeat business.
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If given a diagram of an aircraft, many people could confidently label the wings, nose, tail, and perhaps the aircraft engine. When tasked with identifying such components as the empennage or power plants, their confidence levels may dip. There a few key components that make up the aircraft design that is universally recognized.
The fuselage is the central body that carries passengers, crew, and cargo. It is cylindrical in design in order to accommodate the change in pressure during flight. Attached to the fuselage are the aircraft wings and tail. The way in which these components are attached to the body has changed over time. The truss structure is an older design based around a triangular structure typically constructed using both wood and aluminum tubing. Today, the monocoque and semi-monocoque designs are more popular. Monocoque, a French word loosely translated to “single hull” is best described in terms of a soda can. The fuselage can have relatively thin walls, yet the overall strength and integrity of the structure is impressive. Semi monocoque fuselage structures are defined in terms of bulkheads and frames. A row of bulkheads is supported by metal stringer that run the length of the plane. The bulkheads and stringers are encased in an aluminum skin that is riveted into place.
The placement, number, and shape of the wing all vary depending on the aircraft type. High, mid, lower wing aircraft refer to the positioning of the wing on the fuselage. Similarly, an aircraft can be named after the number of wings it has. Airplanes with a single set of wings are referred to as monoplanes, while those with two sets are called biplanes. The interior of a wing is hollow but supported by spars, ribs and stringers. Fuel tanks are stored in the wings to provide rigidity. To produce lift, most aircraft wings feature the airfoil design.
The propeller, engine, and engine cowling are collectively known as the aircraft powerplant. Power is provided by the engine and is used to turn the propeller. Thrust is the forward force created by the propeller. A type of housing known as cowling covers the engine and helps to streamline the airflow around the engine.
Similar to those found in cars, the firewall is placed in between the passengers and the engine as a safety measure. Firewalls can be made out of stainless steel, titanium, or a terne plate.
The entire tail end of the aircraft is called the empennage. Both the horizontal stabilizer and vertical stabilizer are fixed surfaces that are accompanied by movable surfaces such as the rudder, elevator, and trim tabs. Each of these components help control the movements of the aircraft.
Without the landing gear an aircraft would not be able to takeoff, taxi, or land. Typically, an aircraft is equipped with wheels, however aircraft can be equipped with floats or skis. Two main wheels are located at the front of the aircraft with one wheel located at the rear. Rudder pedals or differential braking help steer the aircraft.
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A bearing is a device that supports the rotational and linear movement, bears various loads and stresses, and reduces friction. The application of bearings has been seen throughout history, predating the wheel, but over the last century, its designs have become much more advanced.
A ball bearing was incorporated into Leonardo da Vinci’s primitive helicopter design around 1500 A.D. and was the first recorded use of bearings in an aerospace design. However, the first published sketches of roller and thrust bearings were from the Italian engineer, Agostino Ramelli, sometime around 1588 A.D. Because ball bearings create more friction when they contact each other, Galileo described a cage for the ball bearings— which reduces friction— in the 17th century.
Bearings now come in many different forms, ranging from simple structures to complex and precise designs. Choosing the optimal bearing primarily depends on what they are intended to be used. Two categorizations for bearings are according to friction, and anti-friction.
Friction bearings are in contact with the moving surface or shaft and produce more friction. There are several types of friction bearings. Solid bearings are used for small and light shafts that are moving at low speeds. Essentially, they are a simple hole that is made in cast iron and supports the shaft. Split bearings are similar to solid bearings but are made in halves and assembled in a special plummer block.
A self-aligning bush bearing mainly consists of two parts: a cast iron block and a bush. The tightness between the bearings and shaft may be altered in an adjustable slide bearing for the purpose of the adjustment of wear. Some of the advantages of friction bearings are that they are cheap, quiet, easily machined, fit into small radial spaces, and have vibration damping properties. These devices do have some disadvantages, they have the potential to damage machines, restrict the early movement of the machine, and produce a lot of heat energy.
Anti-friction bearings minimize friction within the bearing which allows an object's speed to increase while friction and temperature decrease. A ball bearing uses balls to separate the bearing races. Variations of this component include single-row ball bearings, double-row ball bearings, self-aligning ball bearings, angular contact ball bearings, and thrust ball bearings. Roller bearings distribute the load over a larger area and support heavier weights.
A few subcategories are self-aligning roller bearings, tapered roller bearings, needle roller bearings, cylindrical roller bearings, barrel roller bearings, and spherical roller bearings. Some of the advantages of anti-friction bearings are that they are easy to replace, have higher longevity, have less friction, operate easier at high speeds, and require less lubrication. Disadvantages of this component are that they are more expensive, require a larger diameter space, debris entering the bearing wears them quicker, and they have less of a capacity to handle the shock.
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There are a few types of aircraft de-icing equipment that modern aircraft might utilize in the event of ice forming on the airframe. Because of the various factors that affect an airplane in flight, a pilot has to make a few considerations when using said equipment. The practicality of any aircraft de-icing system depends on the density of the ice in question, and how removal will affect the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil. Let’s consider the advantages and disadvantages of three main types of aircraft de-icing systems—pneumatic de-icing boots, chemical de-icing, and bleed air heating.
Pneumatic de-icing boots are commonly used for ice removal on smaller propeller-driven aircraft. They are thick panels of inflatable rubber that are often found on the leading edges of an aircraft wing, horizontal stabilizer, and vertical stabilizer. They are powered by bleeding air from the engine compressors, so as long as the engine is running, these devices have a constant power source. Their structure is made up of a series of air bladders that inflate under a larger rubber boot. This multi-bladder system ensures that much of the ice will be removed across a range of the leading edge.
Though these devices have been used for the last century, they have a few disadvantages. When using this system, it is critical that the pilot only engages them when ice first starts to form. Densely formed ice poses a higher risk of breaking off into the engine or damaging various airframe components. The inflated compartments also protrude slightly from the wing, affecting the airfoil, and potentially the stall speed of an aircraft.
Glycol based fluid, also known as TKS fluid, is used in both commercial and general aviation. For commercial aircraft, an airport de-icing facility will usually spray the aircraft with de-icing fluid before take-off. This removes built up ice from the airframe and is one of the most commonly used de-icing methods by commercial aircraft. The most notable disadvantage of this system is the cost of fluid. Price per gallon of de-icing fluid can run up to twenty dollars per gallon. As a result, for a commercial airliner, de-icing can cost in the ballpark of 10,000 USD per aircraft.
Weeping wing systems are used predominantly in smaller, propeller-driven aircraft. Fluid released from leading edges of the aircraft remove existing ice and create a layer of fluid to help prevent further buildup. Despite their smaller size, de-icing fluid for a smaller airplane will still cost you around 2,000 USD on average.
Lastly, bleed air heating is the most prevalent de-icing method in commercial aircraft. Heated air from the engine turbines is directed to leading edge surfaces on the aircraft. When it is engaged soon enough, the heated airflow can prevent ice from forming around engine openings, on wing leading edges, and other critical parts of the aircraft.
The redundancy of this system, as most other systems entail as well, relies on the vigilance of the pilot and avionics. If the system is engaged after a thick layer of ice has built up, the ice can break off upon removal and harm the fuselage or enter an engine.
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In this day and age, we believe that every vehicle should come with a functioning braking system in order to ensure safety. However, from the creation of the first plane to the advancements made during WWI, the early plane had no need for a complex braking system. It flew at such slow speeds that it only relied on the friction of the wheels touching the ground in order to come to a gradual stop. But as war created the need for faster and larger planes, a functioning brake system became necessary. Contemporary aircraft now typically have a dedicated brake unit for each of its main wheels in order for it to come to a stop in a timely manner.
All brake systems are based on the same principles of converting the kinetic energy and the inertia of the plane in order to decrease the velocity of the plane allowing it to come to a gradual stop. According to the laws of physics, energy cannot be created nor destroyed. So, the kinetic energy that drives the momentum of the plane forward is turned into thermal energy through the process of friction.
The most common mechanism for braking, which is also commonly used in automobiles, is the disc brake. The basic principles of a disc brake are that there is a caliper with disc brakes that are attached to a section of the wheel. When pressure is put on the brakes, the brake pads clamp down onto the spinning wheel, creating friction, and slowing down the rotation of the wheel. Within the classification of disc brakes, there are many other specialized brakes that have been altered to fit the needs of each specific aircraft. The larger the vessel the more complex the braking system has to be in order to achieve the same results. For example, single disc brakes are the simplest of the disc brakes and are typically used on lighter aircraft.
Another common brake is the floating disc brake. Also known as a sliding disc brake, it is one where the wheel is fixed in position with a caliper that can slide to initiate the braking mechanism. When the brakes are applied, the pressure inside the brake housing increases and the pressure forces a piston to move inward toward the center of the braking device and the wheel. The piston presses against the brake pads forcing them into contact with the wheel. The brake pads pressing down on the wheel causes the friction needed to come to a gradual stop. If any excess pressure is applied to the caliper and the brake housing, which are “floating” and do not come in contact with the wheel, they are then forced distally from the wheel. Thus, there is a “cap” on how hard you can break. Because any excess pressure on the braking system causes the caliper to move backward, the brakes are applied at a constant rate to bring the vessel to a stop more smoothly.
Because of their very nature, brakes wear down very quickly. So, it’s important to remember regular maintenance and repair. At Buy Aviation Parts, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, our expert staff can help you find all the brake supplies you need, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at email@example.com or call us at +1-269-264-4495.
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